When publications have unique identifiers, substantial automation of the cross-referencing job is possible.
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Thousands of papers have been written about journal metrics and article metrics , which are attempts to quantify the importance or popularity of journals and publications, and at many institutions, enter into job, performance, and promotion evaluations. The Utah archives include coverage of several journals in that area. The DOI agency strongly recommends the inclusion of DOI values in reference lists, and preferably, as the last entry in each list, without following punctuation.
Here is an example of what they propose:. That way, humans exposed to the Internet quickly recognize it as a Web address, and some Web browsers do as well, even if it is not properly encoded as a hyperlink. Few humans would ever care to produce such complex markup by hand, but a computer program can easily do so. Notice that most of the field values are wrapped in macros, and the user can redefine their default values to hide some of the data. Modern book titles are often short, and as a result, ambiguous: consider how many entry-level college books have been called Algebra , Calculus , Economics , Evolutionary Biology , Geometry , Mechanics , or Organic Chemistry.
The name collisions are a serious source of confusion for their users, including students, instructors, and librarians. To remedy that problem, and prepare for extensive computerization of publisher records, the International Standard Book Number ISBN organization was created in , and most books published worldwide since then include an ISBN and associated scanner bar code on their back covers. Books published before , but later reprinted, are often retrofitted with ISBN values. The Utah archives contain entries for books originally published as long ago as that have been retroactively assigned ISBNs.
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ISBNs are unique handles for each form of a book: if it appears in hardcover, paperback, and electronic editions, then it has three ISBNs. Because they are unique with rare exceptions — 4 duplicate assignments out of about 80, in the Utah archives — caused by human error at publishers and the ISBN registration service , ISBNs can be used in most library catalogs for unambiguous lookups, and most booksellers need only the ISBN to order the book for you. Many journals publishers have recognized the importance of unique identifiers for documents, because it allows them to check, and, if necessary, correct author-submitted values.
Such identifiers also allow publishers to cross-index their data: it is often useful to know who cites whom , because you can then go both forwards and backwards in the literature to follow a line of research. As the examples show, ISBNs consist of ten decimal digits separated by hyphens into four groups. The last digit may also be X or x , but lettercase is not significant. Although some publishers used space separators instead of hyphens in early books, that practice is now strongly deprecated.
Library catalogs and book sellers differ in their search practices: some require the hyphens, while others refuse to accept them. The first group is the country or language: English 0 and 1 , French 2 , German 3 , Japanese 4 , Russian 5 , Chinese 7 , and so on up to Ruandan The second group is the publisher number: small numbers correspond to big publishers, and vice versa.
The third group is the book number within the publisher. When that sequence is exhausted, the publisher applies for a new publisher number.
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For example, the well-known computer-book publisher O'Reilly and Associates began with a 2-digit book number, and later grew to 3- and 4-digit book numbers. The last group is a single digit that is a check digit computed from the first 9 digits. Occasionally, publishers manage to register an ISBN with an incorrect check digit, as shown in one of the examples earlier.
That should not happen, because the number should be verified by both the publisher and the ISBN agency, but the Utah archives contain data for about 80 books out of about 80, where the published check digit is incorrect. Hyphenation makes ISBNs more readable, and serves to identify the four groups. However, humans cannot reliably hyphenate an ISBN, because there are more than rules about how the digits are grouped.
The Emacs isbn. Similarly, bibclean has compiled-in rules derived from the same ISBN agency data, but because new data appear from time to time, updates are needed. To avoid the need to rebuild and reinstall the software, bibclean also reads an optional startup file that contains the current ISBN hyphenation rules, once again automatically derived from the ISBN agency data. By about the year , there was concern that some publishers would soon run out of assignable ISBNs.
The new digit values get a new prefix of , and a different checksum algorithm is used to produce the final digit. Otherwise, the other three fields remain the same, and software can convert between the and digit forms. However, when a publisher has exhausted its digit assignment, it moves to a new prefix group for which there is no digit form. In late , only one book in the Utah archives has such a prefix. That validation has often discovered errors in book-review titles that include ISBNs: humans are unreliable sources of data!
Many publishers encourage that practice, and more work needs to be done to extend the remaining style files to handle such values. Just as ISBNs serve as unique identifiers for books, periodicals too need unique codes. The CODEN system was introduced in , originally with four alphanumeric characters, then expanded to five, and later, with the addition of a check digit, to six.
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Most journals in the physical sciences have such values, and some in mathematics do as well. Here are a few examples:. Here is an example of its output for one of the most prestigious journals in physics:. Most current large periodicals throughout the world now have ISSN values, and so do many defunct ones. BibTeX entries in the Utah archives contain field assignments like these:. Mistakes are sometimes made in ISSN assignments, as the last example shows. In most cases, it is the same as the print ISSN, and is used to identify the periodical when you do not care about its publication form.
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BibTeX styles should be extended to handle both, and give the user a LaTeX option of typesetting either, or both, of them. Both CODEN and ISSN values can be used for unambiguous lookups in many catalogs, and their inclusion in reference lists helps to remove confusion when journal names are abbreviated. For example, does J. It can be used like this:. That program is available on the Web. There is a corresponding local program publisher for providing publisher name and address abbreviations. It too is available on the Web. Both receive frequent updates, so if you download them for use on another site, check back occasionally to get their latest versions.
In the mathematics community, two society databases are of supreme importance:. Each of them can return BibTeX data for their search results, and each such entry includes a unique internal database number that identifies the publication in their databases, much like the DOI does with more generality. The Utah archives preserve such numbers, as shown in this entry:. The MRnumber and and ZMnumber values can take you directly to more data about the publication in those two databases, including possibly reviews and lists of related and referencing publications.
A MathSciNet search result sometimes includes Math Reviews classification codes and reviewer names, as in this fragment:.
More commonly, the parenthesized descriptions of the classification codes are omitted:. The parenthesized codes are considered secondary ones, and the bigger the publication, the longer the list of codes is likely to be. The MRclass values act like a precise form of keywords, except that you have to look up the meaning of each five-character code at a Web site where you can also find a downloadable PDF file that documents all of the classifications.
Those codes can be used in database searches to find related articles, even when their titles might not suggest any relationship. Only a few BibTeX styles recognize the fields described in this section, but their inclusion in reference lists should be encouraged, because they provide additional targets for precision searching of the mathematics literature. The two mathematics databases often enhance article titles with bracketed inline cross-references like these:. We generally preserve such useful additional data, but if the cross-referenced entry is in the same bibliography file, we might instead connect the two entries with a See … note field in each.
That way, if the main paper is cited, the reference list will automatically also get entries with comments, corrigenda, discussions, errata, rebuttals, and replies related to that paper. Regrettably, most databases outside the mathematics community do not yet have such relational links, which might even lead you to a later retraction or withdrawal of the paper. How do I get a bibliography in each book chapter? Most publications that have reference lists need only one, conventionally placed near the end, just before any index or afterword.
However, edited books that contain chapters authored by different people, and complex documents such as collected works, handbooks, and encyclopedias, might more usefully have a separate bibliography for each chapter. Current TeX distributions all contain support for that practice in the form of the LaTeX chapterbib style file.
It is documented in the file chapterbib. How do I index cited authors and editors? Imagine yourself skimming a lengthy bibliography at the back of a fat book, encountering a reference to a publication of interest to you, and then wondering why the author cited that item, and what she had to say about it. With most printed books, the only way to answer that question is to read through the whole book. It would be much better if each reference list entry carried a link back to each of the places in which it was cited, and in addition, if every personal name in the bibliography were indexed.
Then, having recalled a single author name, you could easily find every reference to publications by that author that are included in the reference list. In extreme cases, a reference list in a large book could have scores, or even a hundred or more, pages. Almost no published books have ever included such indexes, because they were impossible to produce reliably by hand, and because software to generate them by computer is not widely available.
The author of this document created such software in for the Prentice—Hall book Case Studies in Mathematical Modeling—Ecology, Physiology, and Cell Biology , and it has been used since for a few more books authored or edited in his Department. His authidx package builds on both BibTeX and MakeIndex to do the job with only a few extra commands in the LaTeX file, and a few extra steps in the document's Makefile. Apart from that, no other effort on the part of the document author s , or book production staff, is needed, and the resulting index is guaranteed to be complete, and reliable.
Here is an outline of a book's top-level LaTeX file, with highlighted additions to get such an index:. To compile the complete book, the author only needs to run a single short command:. During writing and screen proofing, the intermediate steps needed for complete consistency are not important, so the author then just uses this command to perform a single step:.
For those unfamiliar with the Unix make utility, here is a brief explanation:. The make program's default input file is Makefile , but if you wish to be nonstandard, you could use some other name, and then specify it on the command line like this:. The initial tab in the latter is critical, and easy to lose in cut-and-paste operations.