The idea behind these studies is the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies. Critical Instance Case Studies These examine one or more sites for either the purpose of examining a situation of unique interest with little to no interest in generalizability, or to call into question or challenge a highly generalized or universal assertion. This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions.
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Writing Center. Sign In or Create an Account. Contents Introduction. Definition and Overview. Educational Applications. Types and Design Concerns. Types of Case Studies. Identifying a Theoretical Perspective.
Different Types of Case Study
Designing a Case Study. Conducting Case Studies. Method: Single or Multi-modal? Participant Selection. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data. In business research, four common case study approaches are distinguished.
Eisenhardt 's methodological work. Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. There are substantial methodological differences between these approaches.
An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information. In clarifying lines of history and causation it is more useful to select subjects that offer an interesting, unusual or particularly revealing set of circumstances. A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights.
When selecting a case for a case study, researchers will therefore use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling. Alternatively it may be chosen because of researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Richard Fenno put it,  and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances.
Whatever the frame of reference for the choice of the subject of the case study key, outlier, local knowledge , there is a distinction to be made between the subject and the object of the case study. The subject is the "practical, historical unity" through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed. Thus, for example, if a researcher were interested in US resistance to communist expansion as a theoretical focus, then the Korean War might be taken to be the subject , the lens, the case study through which the theoretical focus, the object , could be viewed and explicated.
Beyond decisions about case selection and the subject and object of the study, decisions need to be made about purpose, approach and process in the case study. Gary Thomas thus proposes a typology for the case study wherein purposes are first identified evaluative or exploratory , then approaches are delineated theory-testing, theory-building or illustrative , then processes are decided upon, with a principal choice being between whether the study is to be single or multiple, and choices also about whether the study is to be retrospective, snapshot or diachronic, and whether it is nested, parallel or sequential.
Some cases study marketing analysis to ensure a full understanding of the effects on an organization. In a case where the market of any organization is in jepoardy, the agency will seek answers and solutions. In order to fulfill this need, the organization must gather pertient information.
Case studies can be used to establish where the problem originates by utilizing several research methods.
The primary methods used include: interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations and in some cases, field trials. In public-relations research, three types of case studies are used: . Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions, each of which is custom selected for use depending upon the goals of the investigator. These types of case study include the following:. At Harvard Law School In , Christopher Langdell departed from the traditional lecture-and-notes approach to teaching contract law and began using cases pled before courts as the basis for class discussions.
Research in business disciplines is usually based on a positivist epistemology ,  namely, that reality is something that is objective and can be discovered and understood by a scientific examination of empirical evidence. But organizational behavior cannot always be easily reduced to simple tests that prove something to be true or false.
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- How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper.
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- Interdisciplinary Research: Case Studies from Health and Social Science!
Reality may be an objective thing, but it is understood and interpreted by people who, in turn, act upon it, and so critical realism , which addresses the connection between the natural and social worlds, is a useful basis for analyzing the environment of and events within an organization. Case studies in management are generally used to interpret strategies or relationships, to develop sets of "best practices", or to analyze the external influences or the internal interactions of a firm.
Frederic Le Play first introduced the case-study method into social science in as a handmaiden to statistics in his studies of family budgets. In all these disciplines, case studies were an occasion for postulating new theories, as in the grounded-theory work of sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss One of the areas in which case studies have been gaining popularity is education and in particular educational evaluation.
Comparative case studies, in social science, policy, and education research; discusses one approach, which encourages researchers to compare horizontally, vertically, and temporally. Using case studies in research differs from their use in teaching, where they are commonly called case methods and casebook methods. Teaching case studies have been a highly popular pedagogical format in many fields ranging from business education to science education.
Main Goal Of Writing Case Study
Harvard Business School has been among the most prominent developers and users of teaching case studies. Additional relevant documentation, such as financial statements, time-lines, and short biographies, often referred to in the case study as exhibits, and multimedia supplements such as video-recordings of interviews with the case subject often accompany the case studies.
Similarly, teaching case studies have become increasingly popular in science education. The National Center for Case Studies in Teaching Science has made a growing body of case studies available for classroom use, for university as well as secondary school coursework. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Not to be confused with case method , used in teaching.
Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Case Study Research: Design and Methods 5th ed. Classic Case Studies in Psychology. Abingdon, England: Hodder Education.
Case Study in Social Research - SAGE Research Methods
New York: Basic Books. New York: Springer. Qualitative Sozialforschung: Lehrbuch in German. Weihnhein, Basel: Beltz. Business Research. Journal of International Business Studies.
www.aristocrat-club.ru/modules/map22.php The Academy of Management Review. The Art of Case Study Research.